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Pomeranian

Pomeranian

A Fragile Little Lap Dog

Highly Intelligent, Outgoing, and Energetic

Pomeranians are eager to learn, playful, and adventurous, toy dogs. Poms are bold and curious, they tend to be reserved around or bark at strangers and others dogs, so they need sufficient socialization from puppyhood. These bouncy and confident dogs make great family pets, but can be snappy with small children. Although they are energetic, they are too family oriented to live outdoors. Ideal owners for Poms are singles, seniors, apartment dwellers, and those who live in the city. Daily walks and play sessions are ideal to keep these fun and fluffy dogs calmer while indoors.

Understanding their unique needs will help keep them healthy and create a strong bond between the two of you. Explore this page to learn more about the breed’s history, health concerns, characteristics, and care needs. 

Breed Details

Height:8-11 in. Weight:3-7 lb Lifespan:12-16 years

Size
1

1=small 5=large

Grooming requirements
3

1 = little grooming - 5 = much grooming

Energy level
4

1 = low energy - 5 = high energy

Ease of training
1

1 = difficult - 5 = easy

Affection toward owners
1

1 = independent - 5 = very affectionate

Friendliness toward strangers
1

1 = shy - 5 = very friendly

Routine Care: Pomeranians are well suited to apartment life as long as they are given daily walks and frequent play sessions.

Grooming: Regular brushing and grooming is needed to keep coat beautiful.

Dental: Pomeranians often have serious problems with their teeth, so you’ll need to brush them at least three times a week!

Ear Care: Clean ears weekly, even as a puppy. Don’t worry—your veterinarian can show you how!


The Pomeranian is a loving and docile companion, but can be independent and willful. With early socialization and consistent leadership, she is a lively and loyal addition to any family.

Positive Traits:

  • Highly intelligent, playful, and energetic

  • Outgoing and friendly personality

  • Alert, curious, and busy

  • Protective of family: good watch dog

  • Highly trainable and eager to please

  • Sweet, gentle, and sensitive

Negative Traits:

  • Prone to boredom and separation anxiety when left alone and will find trouble

  • May have a tendency to bark excessively

  • Can be possessive of toys and food, tending to show dominance

  • Can be difficult to housetrain

  • Fragile and easily injured because of her small size

  • Can be snappy with children

Whether you are considering adding a new Pomeranian to your family or you already have one as a companion, it is important for you to know about the genetically linked diseases known to occur more often in this breed. Of course not every Pomeranian will have these problems, but research shows your pal is more at risk than other breeds.

By exploring the health concerns specific to the Pomeranian you will become a knowledgeable and confident pet parent. Be sure to speak with your veterinarian about breed risks every time you visit and educate yourself on the most important signs to watch for at home. She’s counting on you to be her health expert.

Some health issues a Pomeranian could encounter:

Heart Disease

Eye Problems

Cataracts

Eyelid Abnormality

Distichiasis

Bone and Joint Problems

Back Problems

Knee Problems

Spinal Cord Injuries

Bladder Stones

Neurological Disease

Water on the Brain

Tracheal Collapse

Dental Abnormalities

Skin Conditions

Alopecia X

Thyroid Disease


The Pomeranian originated in Germany during the 16th century as a large Spitz breed used for sheep herding. They were then bred down in size for companionship. The smaller Pomeranians became popular pets when Queen Victoria imported them to Britain in the late 19th century and established a breeding kennel. Poms enjoy close human companionship and bond quickly, but do not tend to be overly clingy. They demand to be the center of attention and enjoy entertaining with their comical tricks and vivacious outlook on life. The Pomeranian is a generally healthy breed with an average lifespan of 15 years.

Consult with a veterinarian if your Pomeranian shows signs of the following:

  • Coughing, exercise intolerance, rapid breathing at rest

  • Fatigue during exercise, coughing, or shortness of breath

  • Coughing, especially at night or upon rising after sleeping, rapid breathing at rest

  • Low heart rate, tiring easily or fainting when exercising

  • Blinking, redness, pain or itchiness around the eyes

  • Cloudiness to eye lens

  • Increased blinking, extra tears and squinting

  • Unwilling to jump, cries when moving head

  • Pain or straining to urinate, bloody urine

  • Seizures, dull demeanor, spastic gait

  • Misplaced or missing teeth, bad breath, hair and food stuck between teeth

  • Dull coat, hair loss, sluggish, weight gain

  • Care

    Routine Care: Pomeranians are well suited to apartment life as long as they are given daily walks and frequent play sessions.

    Grooming: Regular brushing and grooming is needed to keep coat beautiful.

    Dental: Pomeranians often have serious problems with their teeth, so you’ll need to brush them at least three times a week!

    Ear Care: Clean ears weekly, even as a puppy. Don’t worry—your veterinarian can show you how!


  • Characteristics

    The Pomeranian is a loving and docile companion, but can be independent and willful. With early socialization and consistent leadership, she is a lively and loyal addition to any family.

    Positive Traits:

    • Highly intelligent, playful, and energetic

    • Outgoing and friendly personality

    • Alert, curious, and busy

    • Protective of family: good watch dog

    • Highly trainable and eager to please

    • Sweet, gentle, and sensitive

    Negative Traits:

    • Prone to boredom and separation anxiety when left alone and will find trouble

    • May have a tendency to bark excessively

    • Can be possessive of toys and food, tending to show dominance

    • Can be difficult to housetrain

    • Fragile and easily injured because of her small size

    • Can be snappy with children

  • Health Concerns

    Whether you are considering adding a new Pomeranian to your family or you already have one as a companion, it is important for you to know about the genetically linked diseases known to occur more often in this breed. Of course not every Pomeranian will have these problems, but research shows your pal is more at risk than other breeds.

    By exploring the health concerns specific to the Pomeranian you will become a knowledgeable and confident pet parent. Be sure to speak with your veterinarian about breed risks every time you visit and educate yourself on the most important signs to watch for at home. She’s counting on you to be her health expert.

    Some health issues a Pomeranian could encounter:

    Heart Disease

    Eye Problems

    Cataracts

    Eyelid Abnormality

    Distichiasis

    Bone and Joint Problems

    Back Problems

    Knee Problems

    Spinal Cord Injuries

    Bladder Stones

    Neurological Disease

    Water on the Brain

    Tracheal Collapse

    Dental Abnormalities

    Skin Conditions

    Alopecia X

    Thyroid Disease


  • History

    The Pomeranian originated in Germany during the 16th century as a large Spitz breed used for sheep herding. They were then bred down in size for companionship. The smaller Pomeranians became popular pets when Queen Victoria imported them to Britain in the late 19th century and established a breeding kennel. Poms enjoy close human companionship and bond quickly, but do not tend to be overly clingy. They demand to be the center of attention and enjoy entertaining with their comical tricks and vivacious outlook on life. The Pomeranian is a generally healthy breed with an average lifespan of 15 years.

  • Watch Out For

    Consult with a veterinarian if your Pomeranian shows signs of the following:

    • Coughing, exercise intolerance, rapid breathing at rest

    • Fatigue during exercise, coughing, or shortness of breath

    • Coughing, especially at night or upon rising after sleeping, rapid breathing at rest

    • Low heart rate, tiring easily or fainting when exercising

    • Blinking, redness, pain or itchiness around the eyes

    • Cloudiness to eye lens

    • Increased blinking, extra tears and squinting

    • Unwilling to jump, cries when moving head

    • Pain or straining to urinate, bloody urine

    • Seizures, dull demeanor, spastic gait

    • Misplaced or missing teeth, bad breath, hair and food stuck between teeth

    • Dull coat, hair loss, sluggish, weight gain

Pomeranian Discussions

Share your thoughts and experiences, ask questions, or just show your love for the Pomeranian breed here!

Select Another Breed

To view the sources for the information listed on this page, see our Dog Breed Guide Reference page.

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